Different kinds of data for every purpose...
Almost every programming language stores information differently according to what kind of information it is. The different kinds of information are called datatypes.
These are not all the kinds of datatypes out there, but these are shared among the most programming languages.
A boolean is either true or false and is used for logic.
Binary = A number expressed in base 2 as ones and zeroes.
Hexadecimal = A number expressed in base 16 as 0-9 & a-f.
Integer = A whole number without a decimal.
Floating point = A decimal number.
Character = A single letter, digit, space, or symbol.
String = A sequence of characters in a row.
Example: "Don't press the red button!"
Date = Specifies a particular day of a year.